Hi and thank you for your report.
This seems to be either Stripe PHP SDK or CentOS\Curl issue.
I was unable to reproduce this on my test server (it’s not running CentOS though).
Anyway, I have just released a new testing version with additional settings option called
Disable Curl Persistent Connections. It can be found on WP Dashboard -> Stripe Payments, “Avanced Settings” tab.
When this option is enabled, it does the same thing that you code does – it instructs Stripe PHP SDK to disable persistent connections for Curl.
You can get latest testing version here: https://s-plugins.com/testing-version/